Battle of Leghorn


4th March 1653
Part of : The First Anglo-Dutch War (1652 - 1654)
Previous action : Battle of Portland 18th February 1653 - 20th February 1653
Next action : Battle of the Gabbard 2nd June 1653 - 3rd June 1653


Commonwealth of England

Squadron from Livorno, Henry Appleton
Ship NameGunsCommanderNotes
Bonaventure 44Stephen Lyme Sunk
Leopard 40Henry Appleton70 killed, 54 wounded Captured
Sampson 40Edmund Seaman Burnt
Mary 30Benjamin Fisher
Levant Merchant 28Stephen Marsh Captured
Relieving Force, Richard Badiley
Ship NameGunsCommanderNotes
Paragon 52George DakinsFleet Flagship
Elizabeth 38Christopher Myngs
Phoenix 38Owen Cox
Constant Warwick 32Richard Potter
Mary Rose 32Jeffrey Dare Hired Merchantman
Lewis 30William Elle Hired Merchantman
Peregrine 30John Wood
Thomas Bonaventure 28George Hughes Hired Merchantman

Dutch Republic

Dutch Squadron, Johan van Galen
Ship NameGunsCommanderNotes
Verenigde Provinciën 40Johan van GalenFleet Flagship CO Killed
Ter Goes 48 
Maan 40 
Vergulde Zon 40Pieter van Zalingen
Maagd van Enkhuizen 34 
Jonge Prins 28Cornelis Barentszoon Slordt
Julius Ceasar 28Jan Janszoon Rootjes
Zwarte Arend 28Pieter Janszoon van Bonttebotter
Salomons Oordeel 28Meyndert van Oostwout
Roode Haas 28Adriaan Rodenhaes
Gouden Ster 30Hendrick Govertszoon
Zutphen 26Hillebrand Jeroenszoon
Witte Olifant 28Sijbrant Janszoon Mol
Suzanna 28Daniel Janssen de Vries
Madonna della Vigna 28Harman Sonne Damaged

Notes on Action

The EngagementTRN2

The English goal was to enable Appleton's squadron to leave port and rejoin the fleet. Badiley had wanted Appleton to set sail at night, to improve his chances of escaping the Dutch.Alas, Appleton would not comply. Instead, while Badiley was still to the South, beyond the Dutch, Appleton's squadron sortied from the harbor mouth in broad daylight. The Dutch immediately attacked his squadron before Badiley could close. Early in the engagement, the Bonaventure, leading Appleton's squadron was hit by a shot from Van Galen's flagship, the Zeven Provincien, and exploded. The ship was destroyed, with only five men saved by the Dutch. Before that, the Bonaventure had fired and a shot hit Van Galen in the leg, causing his leg to have to be amputated. He died 9 days later.

The Leopard fought the Zon and Julius Caesar and inflicted heavy losses on them. The Maan fought and beat the Sampson, but a Dutch fireship came up on her disengaged side and burnt the Sampson, only 42 men of the crew of 130, including Edmund Seaman, were rescued. Both the Peregrine and Levant Merchant were captured. The Peregrine first lost her mainmast, shot by the Rodenhaes and then was boarded by the Susanna. The Peregrine eventually lost her mainmast, but had fought off the Susanna. The Zwarten Arend eventually captured the Peregrine. The Levant Merchant sank her first opponent, the Madonna della Vigna, or at least she was forced to run ashore, north of the harbor mouth. The Maagd van Enkhuysen then attacked and took the Levant Merchant. The Leopard, Appleton's flagship, was engaged by the Eendracht, and was eventually captured. In the end, only the Mary, which was faster than the Dutch ships, escaped to join Badiley's squadron.

Badiley eventually came up to engage. All the remaining Dutch ships engaged his squadron and after an initial exchange of gunfire, Badiley led his squadron in retreat.


TRN2 The Royal Navy : a history from the earliest times to the present Vol IIWilliam Laid ClowesDigital Book
Previous comments on this pageno comments to display
Make a comment about this page

Sorry, due to a spate of spam I have had to reinstate the Captcha. I know it's a pain and will update to a better solution soon.
You only have to pass this once per session though, once passed you will not see it again for a while.

Recent comments to other pages
Date postedByPage
Wednesday 26th of April 2017 21:22DavidTaxFrench Fourth Rate ship 'Le Don de Dieu' (1648)
Wednesday 19th of April 2017 18:40Paul FieldsMinerva Class
Thursday 6th of April 2017 23:02June BridgemanJohn Elliot Bingham
Thursday 6th of April 2017 11:16Suzanne NewburyBritish Third Rate ship of the line 'Culloden' (1783)
Wednesday 5th of April 2017 22:17Stan BarnesAmerican Privateer ship 'Lady Washington' (1779)