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Battle of Trafalgar

21st October 1805
Part of : The Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815)
Previous action : Phoenix vs Didon 10.8.1805
Next action : Battle of Cape Ortegal 4.11.1805

 

Allied (Spain & Empire Français) -

 
Allied Rear,
Pierre Etienne René Marie Le Pelley du ManoirFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1793-1819
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Neptuno (80) 1795-1805
Spanish 80 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Don Cayetano Valdes y FloresSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1767-1834
37 Killed, 47 Wounded Captured
Le Scipion (74) 1801-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Charles BerrengerFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1757-1814
5 Killed
Rayo (84) 1749-1805
Spanish 84 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Don Enrique MacdonelSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
4 Killed, 14 Wounded Captured
Formidable (84) 1795-1805
French 84 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1795 Renamed "Formidable"
Jean-Marie LetellierFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1767-1830
Squadron Flagship 11 Killed, 30 Wounded
Le Duguay Trouin (74) 1800-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Claude TouffetFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1767-1805
13 Killed, 23 Wounded
San Francisco de Asis (74) 1767-1805
Spanish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Luis de FloresSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
5 Killed, 12 Wounded
Mont Blanc (74) 1791-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1794 Renamed "Trente-et-un Mai"
1795 Renamed "Republicaine"
1796 Renamed "Mont Blanc"
1791 Renamed "Mont Blanc"
Guillaume Jean Noel La VillegrisFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1752-1807
2 Killed
 
Allied Center,
Ship NameCommanderNotes
San Agustín (74) 1768-1805
Spanish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Felipe Antonio Jado y CagigalSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
,
Felipe Antonio Jado y CagigalSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
180 Killed, 200 Wounded Captured
Le Héros (74) 1801-1808
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Jean Baptiste Joseph Rene PoulainFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1805
11 Killed, 23 Wounded CO Killed
Nuestra Señora de la Santisima Trinidad (136) 1769-1805
Spanish 136 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
Francisco Javier de Uriarte y BorjaSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1745-1845
205 Killed, 108 Wounded Captured
Le Bucentaure (86) 1803-1805
French 86 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Jean-Jacques MagendieFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1766-1835
Fleet Flagship 192 Killed, 46 wounded Captured
Le Neptune (86) 1803-1808
French 86 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Esprit-Tranquille MaistralFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1775-1815
30 Killed, 40 wounded
San Leandro (64) 1787-1814
Spanish 64 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Jose QuevedoSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
8 Killed, 22 wounded
Redoutable (74) 1791-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1794 Renamed "Redoutable"
Jean-Jacques LucasFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1764-1819
580 Killed Captured
 
Allied Van,
Ignacio Maria de Alava y Saenz de NavarreteSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1750-1817
Ship NameCommanderNotes
L'Intrépide (74) 1800-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Louis-Antoine-Cyprien InfernetFrench
Naval Sailor
Privateer
Marine
Service 1795
100 killed, 200 wounded Captured
San Justo (74) 1779-1828
Spanish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Miguel Gaston de IriarteSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
7 wounded
L'Indomptable (84) 1790-1805
French 84 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Jean Joseph HubertFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1795-1800
800 Killed
Santa Ana (112) 1784-1816
Spanish 112 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
Jose de GardoquiSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
Squadron Flagship 103 killed, 136 wounded Captured
Le Fougueux (74) 1785-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Louis Alexis BaudouinFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1766-1805
600 killed, 10 wounded Captured
Monarca (74) 1794-1805
Spanish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Teodoro de Argumosa y BourkeSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1745-1845
100 Killed, 150 wounded Captured
Le Pluton (74) 1805-1808
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Julien Marie Cosmao-KerjulienFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1776-1815
67 killed, 130 wounded
 
Squadron of Observation,
Federico Carlos Gravina y NapoliSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1768-1806
Ship NameCommanderNotes
L'Algeciras (74) 1804-1808
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Laurent TourneurFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1762-1820
85 killed, 142 wounded Captured
Bahama (74) 1783-1805
Spanish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Dionisio Alcala GalianoSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1749-1849
75 killed, 67 wounded Captured
L'Aigle (74) 1800-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Pierre Paulin GourregeFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1749-1805
100 killed, 200 wounded Captured
Swiftsure (74) 1801-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Charles Eusebe L'Hospitalier de VillemandrinFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1756-1812
70 killed, 122 wounded Captured
L'Argonaute (74) 1798-1806
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Jacques Épron DesjardinsFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1767-1837
53 Killed, 127 wounded
Montanes (74) 1794-1810
Spanish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Francisco de Alcedo y BustamanteSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
20 Killed, 29 wounded
Argonauta (80) 1798-1805
Spanish 80 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Antonio Pareja y Serrano de LeonSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1753-1853
100 Killed, 200 wounded Captured
Le Berwick (74) 1795-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Jean Giles Filhol de CamasFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1758-1805
300 Killed, 15 wounded Captured
San Juan Nepomuceno (74) 1766-1805
Spanish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Cosme Damian Churruca y de ElorzaSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1761-1805
128 Killed, 147 wounded Captured
San Ildefonso (74) 1785-1805
Spanish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Jose Ramon de Vargas y VaraezSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1740-1840
34 Killed, 136 wounded Captured
L'Achille (74) 1803-1805
French 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Louis Gabriel DeniéportFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1765-1805
480 Killed, 30 wounded Exploded
Principe de Asturias (112) 1794-1812
Spanish 112 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
Rafael de HoreSpanish
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
Squadron Flagship 52 Killed, 110 wounded
 
Vessels not in the Line
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Le Rhin (44) 1802-1806
French 44 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
Michel ChesneauFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
Hortense (40) 1803-1840
French 40 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
1814 Renamed "Flore"
Louis Charles Auguste La Marre la MeillerieFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
La Cornelie (44) 1797-1808
French 44 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
André Jules François de Martineng de la FargeFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1788-1841
La Thémis (40) 1799-1808
French 40 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
Nicolas Joseph Pierre JuganFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1774-1810
Hermione (40) 1804-1808
French 40 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
Jean Michel MahéFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1776-1833
Le Furet (18) 1801-1806
French 18 Gun
Unrated Brig
Pierre Antoine Toussaint DemaiFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
L'Argus (16) 1798-1799
French 16 Gun
Privateer Lugger
Yves Francois TaillardFrench
Naval Sailor
Service 1755-1855
 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland -

 
The Weather Column,
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Victory (100) 1765-2019
British 100 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
Thomas Masterman HardyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1781-1837
Fleet Flagship 57 Killed, 102 Wounded
Temeraire (98) 1798-1838
British 98 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
Eliab HarveyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1779-1795
47 Killed, 76 Wounded
Neptune (98) 1797-1818
British 98 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
Isaac ShawBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1795-1813
,
Thomas Francis FremantleBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1782-1819
10 Killed, 34 Wounded
Leviathan (74) 1790-1848
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Henry William BayntunBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1775-1837
4 Killed, 22 Wounded
Conqueror (74) 1801-1822
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Israel PellewBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1779-1814
3 Killed, 9 Wounded
Agamemnon (64) 1781-1809
British 64 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Sir Edward BerryBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1779-1821
2 Killed, 8 Wounded
Britannia (100) 1762-1825
British 100 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
1812 Renamed "Princess Royal"
1812 Renamed "Saint George"
1819 Renamed "Barfleur"
Charles BullenBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1779-1852
10 Killed, 42 Wounded
Ajax (74) 1798-1807
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
William BrownBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1788-1815
,
John PilfoldBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1788-1805
2 Killed, 9 Wounded
Orion (74) 1787-1814
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Edward CodringtonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1783-1856
1 Killed, 23 Wounded
Minotaur (74) 1793-1810
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Charles John Moore MansfieldBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1772-1807
3 Killed, 22 Wounded
Spartiate (74) 1798-1857
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Sir Francis Laforey (2nd Baronet Laforey)British
Naval Sailor
Service 1789-1814
3 Killed, 20 Wounded
 
The Lee Column,
Cuthbert CollingwoodBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1693-1802
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Royal Sovereign (100) 1786-1841
British 100 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
1825 Renamed "Captain"
Edward RotherhamBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1783-1808
Squadron Flagship 47 Killed, 94 Wounded
Belleisle (74) 1795-1814
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
William HargoodBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1780-1837
33 Killed, 93 Wounded
Colossus (74) 1803-1826
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
James Nicoll MorrisBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1780-1825
40 Killed, 160 Wounded
Mars (74) 1794-1823
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
George DuffBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1779-1796
29 Killed, 69 Wounded CO Killed
Tonnant (80) 1798-1821
British 80 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Charles TylerBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1779-1816
26 Killed, 50 Wounded
Bellerophon (74) 1786-1836
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1824 Renamed "Captivity"
John CookeBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1776-1794
27 Killed, 123 Wounded CO Killed
Achille (74) 1798-1865
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Richard KingBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1780-1830
13 Killed, 59 Wounded
Polyphemus (64) 1782-1827
British 64 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Robert RedmillBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1783-1806
2 Killed, 4 Wounded
Revenge (74) 1805-1849
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Robert MoorsomBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1784-1825
28 Killed, 51 Wounded
Swiftsure (74) 1804-1845
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
William Gordon RutherfordBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1778-1807
9 Killed, 8 Wounded
Defence (74) 1762-1811
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
George Johnstone HopeBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1781-1815
7 Killed, 29 Wounded
Thunderer (74) 1783-1814
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
William LechmereBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1774-1814
,
John StockhamBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1797-1805
,
Thomas SearleBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1796-1846
4 Killed, 12 Wounded
Defiance (74) 1783-1817
British 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 17 Killed, 53 Wounded
Prince (98) 1788-1837
British 98 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
Richard GrindallBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1776-1814
No Casualties
Dreadnought (98) 1801-1857
British 98 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
Edward RotherhamBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1783-1808
,
John ConnBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1793-1810
7 Killed, 26 Wounded
 
Vessels not in the Line
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Africa (64) 1781-1814
British 64 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Henry DigbyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1782-1840
18 Killed, 44 Wounded
Naiad (38) 1797-1866
British 38 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
Thomas DundasBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1793-1812
Phoebe (36) 1795-1841
British 36 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
Thomas Bladen CapelBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1792-1847
Euryalus (36) 1803-1860
British 36 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
1859 Renamed "Africa"
Henry BlackwoodBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1782-1830
Sirius (36) 1797-1810
British 36 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
William ProwseBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1782-1813
Entreprenante (10) 1798-1812
British 10 Gun
Unrated Cutter
Robert Benjamin YoungBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1796-1810
Pickle (8) 1800-1808
British 8 Gun
Unrated Schooner
1801 Renamed "Pickle"
John Richards LapenotiereBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1794-1811
 

Notes on Action


Allied Casualty FiguresB006
The casualty figures given for the allied fleet include those incured when ships foundered or were wrecked after the battle had finished.
Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood's DispatchBG

To William Marsden Esq., Admiralty, London

Euryalus, off Cape Trafalgar, Oct. 22.

Sir,

The ever to be lamented death of Vice Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson, who, in the late conflict with the enemy, fell in the hour of victory, leaves to me the duty of informing my Lord Commissioners of the Admiralty, that on the 19th inst. it was communicated to the Commander in Chief from the ships watching the motions of the enemy in Cadiz, that the combined fleet had put to sea; as they sailed with light winds westerly, his Lordship concluded their destination was the Mediterranean, and immediately made all sail for the Streights' entrance, with the British squadron, consisting of twenty-seven ships, three of them sixty-fours, where his Lordship was informed by Captain Blackwood (whose vigilance in watching, and giving notice of the enemy's movements, has been highly meritorious) that they had not yet passed the Streights.

On Monday, the 21st instant, at day light, when Cape Trafalgar bore E. by S. about seven leagues, the enemy was discovered six or seven miles to the eastward, the wind about west, and very light, the Commander in Chief immediately made the signal for the fleet to bear up in two columns, as they are formed in order of sailing; a mode of attack his Lordship had previously directed, to avoid the inconvenience and delay in forming a line of battle in the usual manner. The enemy's line consisted of thirty-three ships (of which 18 were French and 15 Spanish) commanded in chief by Admiral Villeneuve; the Spaniards under the direction of Gravina, wore, with their heads to the northward, and formed the line of battle with great closeness and correctness;-but as the mode of attack was unusual, so the structure of their line was new; it formed a crescent convexing to leeward-so that, in leading down to their centre, I had both their van and rear, abaft the beam; before the fire opened, every alternate ship was about a cable's length to windward of her second a-head, and a-stern, forming a kind of double line, and appeared, when on their beam, to leave a very littler interval between them; and this without crowding their ships. Admiral Villeneuve was in the Bucentaure in the centre, and the Prince of Asturias bore Gravina's flag in the rear; but the French and Spanish ships were mixed without any apparent regard to order of national squadron.

As the mode of our attack had been previously determined on, and communicated to the Flag Officers and Captains, few signals were necessary, and none were made, except to direct close order as the lines bore down. The Commander in Chief in the Victory led the weather column, and the Royal Sovereign, which bore my flag, the lee.

The action began at twelve o'clock, by the leading ships of the columns breaking through the enemy's line, the Commander in Chief about the tenth ship from the van, the Second in Command about the twelfth from the rear, leaving the van of the enemy unoccupied; the succeeding ships breaking through, in all parts, astern of their leaders, and engaging the enemy at the muzzles of their guns: the conflict was severe; the enemy's ships were fought with a gallantry highly honourable to their officers, but the attack on them was irresistible, and it pleased the Almighty Disposer of all Events, to grant his Majesty's arms a complete and glorious victory.

About three P.M. many of the enemy's ships having struck their colours, their line gave way: Admiral Gravina, with ten ships, joining their frigates to leeward, stood towards Cadiz. The five headmost ships in their van tacked, and standing to the southward, to windward, of the British line, were engaged, and the sternmost of them taken:-the others went off, leaving to his Majesty's squadron, nineteen ships of the line, (of which two are first-rates, the Santissima Trinidad and the Santa Anna) with three Flag Officers, viz. Admiral Villeneuve, the Commander in Chief, Don Ignatio Maria D'Aliva, Vice Admiral, and the Spanish Rear Admiral Don Baltazar Hidalgo Cisneros.

After such a victory it may appear unnecessary to enter into encomiums on the particular parts taken by the several Commanders; the conclusion says more on the subject than I have language to express; the spirit which animated all was the same; when all exerted themselves zealously in their country's service, all deserve that their high merits should stand recorded; and never was high merit more conspicuous than in the battle I have described.

The Achille (a French 74), after having surrendered, by some mismanagement of the Frenchmen took fire and blew up; two hundred of her men were saved by the tenders.

A circumstance occurred during the action, which so strongly marks the invincible spirit of British seamen, when engaging the enemies of their country, that I cannot resist the pleasure I have in making it known to their Lordships; the Temeraire was boarded by accident, or design, by a French ship on one side, and a Spaniard on the other; the contest was vigorous, but, in the end, the combined ensigns were torn from the poop, and the British hoisted in their places.

Such a battle could not be fought without sustaining a great loss of men. I have not only to lament in common with the British Navy, and the British Nation, in the fall of the Commander in Chief, the loss of a Hero, whose name will be immortal, and his memory ever dear to his country; but my heart is rent with the most poignant grief for the death of a friend, to whom, by many years intimacy, and a perfect knowledge of the virtues of his mind, which inspired ideas superior to the common race of men, I was bound by the strongest ties of affection; a grief to which even the glorious occasion in which he fell, does not bring the consolation which perhaps it ought; his Lordship received a musket ball in his left breast, about the middle of the action, and sent an officer to me immediately with his last farewell; and soon after expired.

I have also to lament the loss of those excellent officers, Captains Duff, of the Mars, and Cooke, of the Bellerophon; I have yet heard of no others.

I fear the numbers that have fallen will be found very great, when the returns come to me; but it having blown a gale of wind ever since the action, I have not yet had it in my power to collect any reports from the ships.

The Royal Sovereign having lost her masts, except the tottering foremast, I called the Euryalus to me, which the action continued, which ship lying within hail, made my signals, a service Captain Blackwood performed with great attention; after the action, I shifted my flag to her, that I might more easily communicate my orders to, and collect the ships, and towed the Royal Sovereign out to seaward. The whole fleet were now in a very perilous situation, many dismasted, all shattered, in thirteen fathom water, off the Shoals of Trafalgar, and when I made the signal to prepare to anchor, few of the ships had an anchor to let go, their cables being shot; but the same good Providence which aided us through such a day, preserved us in the night, by the wind shifting a few points, and drifting the ships off the land.

Having thus detailed the proceedings of the fleet on this occasion, I beg to congratulate their Lordships on a victory, which, I hope will add a ray to the glory of his Majesty's Crown, and be attended with public benefit to our country.

I am, &c.

C. Collingwood




Previous comments on this page

Posted by Cy on Sunday 26th of April 2020 16:38

Neptuno was indeed missing, who knows. It's there again now.


Posted by steve lockhart on Saturday 25th of April 2020 12:28

Where is the spanish ship of the line Neptuno ?


Posted by Colin Stone on Sunday 7th of October 2012 23:55

A mistake is noticed above under "Lee column at Trafalgar"
Polyphemus was in the command at this battle by Captain Robert Redmill not John Lawford.
This can be easily verified for internet sources.
Regards Colin

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