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Battle of Lowestoft

3rd June 1665
Part of : The Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665 - 1667)
Previous action : Action of 1665-04-13 13.4.1665
Next action : Battle of Vågen 3.8.1665

At mid-day on June 1st, it was reported to the Duke of York in Southwold Bay that the enemy was about six miles to the E.S.E.; whereupon the commander-in-chief weighed and put to sea. There is much contradictory evidence as to the direction of the wind at the time. It is probable, however, that it was favourable to the Dutch, and that Obdam's only reason for not attacking at once was that his ships were scattered, and that he desired to enable the whole of his force to come up. He consequently kept away to seaward during the afternoon and night. On the morning of June 2nd, he was visible about five miles to the S.E., and at 8 A.M. Lowestoft was eight miles to the N.W., and the enemy had closed to a distance of three miles or less. But that day there was no farther approach until towards evening. The wind then shifted from E. to S., later veering to S.W. by W with the result that, at about 2.30 A.M. on June 3rd, the fleets were some fourteen miles N.N.E. of Lowestoft, and the English had the weather-gauge.

 

Dutch Republic

 
The 1st Amsterdam Squadron,
Jacob van Wassenaer ObdamDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1665
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Eendracht (58) 1653-1665
Dutch 58 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 †Fleet Flagship Sunk
Amsterdam (54) 1653-1689
Dutch 54 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Tijdverdrijf (58) 1655-1683
Dutch 58 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Albert Claessen GraeffDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Huis te Kruiningen (58) 1653-1677
Dutch 58 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Jacob Corneliszoon SwartDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1602-1702
Vrijheid (50) 1651-1676
Dutch 50 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Landman (44) 1653-1666
Dutch 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Hugo van NieuwenhofDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Vrede (40) 1653-1667
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Laurens van HeemskerckDutch
Naval Sailor
,
Huijbert HuijghDutch
Naval Sailor
Stad Gouda (48) 1655-1685
Dutch 48 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Otto van TreslongDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Dom van Utrecht (48) 1654-1688
Dutch 48 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Jacob Willemszoon BroederDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1661
Harderwijk (46) 1662-1693
Dutch 46 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Jacob WiltschutDutch
Naval Sailor
Haarlem (40) 1644-1667
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Adam van BrederodeDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1665
Zeelandia (34) 1643-1677
Dutch 34 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Balthazar van de VoordeDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Gouden Ster (30) 1644-1677
Dutch 30 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Herman Egbertsen WolffDutch
Naval Sailor
Brack (18) 1665-1684
Dutch 18 Gun
Merchant Yacht
 
Maarseveen (78) 1665-1665
Dutch 78 Gun
Merchant East Indiaman
Jacob de ReusDutch
Naval Sailor
Burnt
 
The 2nd Squadron,
Johan EvertsenDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1566-1666
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Hof van Zeeland (58) 1653-1666
Dutch 58 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Johan EvertsenDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1566-1666
Squadron Flagship
Klein Hollandia (54) 1654-1672
Dutch 54 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Quirijn van den KerckhoffDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1602-1702
Utrecht (48) 1653-1673
Dutch 48 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
  Burnt
Middelburg (38) 1659-1677
Dutch 38 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Isaak SweersDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1636-1673
Zeelandia (42) 1652-1665
Dutch 42 Gun
6th Rate Ship of the Line
Sijmon BlocqDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Captured
Delft (36) 1659-1665
Dutch 36 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Jan BanckertDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Captured
Zeelandia (32) 1641-1666
Dutch 32 Gun
6th Rate Ship
Bastiaan TuynemansDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1602-1702
Schakerloo (30) 1661-1674
Dutch 30 Gun
5th Rate Ship
 
Prins Maurits (44) 1654-1665
Dutch 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship
Marinus de ClerqDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1565-1665
Dordrecht (46) 1665-1686
Dutch 46 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Utrecht (36) 1660-1687
Dutch 36 Gun
4th Rate Frigate
Christiaan EldertszoonDutch
Naval Sailor
Delft (36) 1664-1674
Dutch 36 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Jacob van BoshuisenDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Schiedam (24) 1662-1678
Dutch 24 Gun
6th Rate Ship
Adriaan SolderwagenDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1665
Oranje (76) 1643-1665
Dutch 76 Gun
Merchant East Indiaman
Bastiaen CensenDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Sunk
Lapende Hert (8) 1665-1665
Dutch 8 Gun
Unrated Yacht
Pieter WijnbergenDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1665
Dieshouk (6) 1665-1665
Dutch 6 Gun
Unrated Yacht
Jan Pietersen TantDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
 
The 3rd Maas Squadron,
Egbert Meeuwssen KortenaerDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1635-1735
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Groot Hollandia (58) 1654-1687
Dutch 58 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Laurens Davidszoon van ConvertDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Squadron Flagship
Oosterwijk (68) 1653-1676
Dutch 68 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Dirck ScheyDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Stavoren (44) 1653-1672
Dutch 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Hilversum (62) 1655-1665
Dutch 62 Gun
Hired Ship of the Line
Cartsen Crijnssen de RechterDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
,
Albert MathijszoonDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Captured
Zuiderhuis (42) 1653-1676
Dutch 42 Gun
5th Rate Ship of the Line
Joost VerschuurDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Doesburg (48) 1654-1666
Dutch 48 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Ijsbrant de VriesDutch
Naval Sailor
Verenigde Provinciën (40) 1643-1665
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Cornelis van HogenhoeckDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Duivenvoorde (40) 1654-1666
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Adriaan TolDutch
Naval Sailor
Wakende Boei (48) 1661-1676
Dutch 48 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Ter Goes (48) 1641-1665
Dutch 48 Gun
4th Rate Ship
  Burnt
Harderin (40) 1653-1666
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Maagd van Enkhuizen (34) 1650-1665
Dutch 34 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Overijssel (36) 1650-1686
Dutch 36 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Reinold van CoervordenDutch
Naval Sailor
Delfland (70) 1665-1665
Dutch 70 Gun
Hired Ship
 
Sphaera Mundi (41) 1665-1665
Dutch 41 Gun
Merchant Ship
 
 
The 4th Friesland Squadron,
Auke StellinwerfDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1635-1665
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Zevenwolden (58) 1655-1666
Dutch 58 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 Squadron Flagship
Groningen (40) 1641-1666
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Prinses Albertina (44) 1653-1665
Dutch 44 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Hendrik Dirkszoon BruynsveldDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1636-1736
Oostergo (68) 1653-1676
Dutch 68 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Elf Steden (54) 1654-1674
Dutch 54 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Captured
Westergo (56) 1653-1672
Dutch 56 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Omlandia (44) 1654-1688
Dutch 44 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Cornelis Allertszoon OostrumDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1602-1702
Klein Frisia (42) 1653-1676
Dutch 42 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Wytze Johannes van BeymaDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Postiljon (40) 1664-1666
Dutch 40 Gun
Hired Ship
Barend Hiddes de VriesDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Klein Hollandia (54) 1654-1672
Dutch 54 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Quirijn van den KerckhoffDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1602-1702
Fazant (32) 1646-1667
Dutch 32 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Jacob Jansz. PieteysDutch
Naval Sailor
Administrator
Service 1665
Ijlst (36) 1663-1665
Dutch 36 Gun
6th Rate Ship
 
Huijs te Zwieten (70) 1660-1665
Dutch 70 Gun
Merchant Ship
Cartsen Crijnssen de RechterDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Mars (50) 1665-1665
Dutch 50 Gun
Hired Ship
  Captured
Ruyter (18) 1665-1665
Dutch 18 Gun
Merchant Yacht
  Captured
 
The 5th Amsterdam Squadron,
Cornelis Maartenszoon TrompDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1629-1691
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Liefde (70) 1661-1666
Dutch 70 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
 Squadron Flagship
Koevorden (60) 1655-1665
Dutch 60 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Kampen (54) 1652-1677
Dutch 54 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Luijpaert (60) 1653-1665
Dutch 60 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Commer GerritszoonDutch
Naval Sailor
Stad en Lande (50) 1653-1671
Dutch 50 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Tromp (46) 1655-1667
Dutch 46 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Jaarsveld (34) 1653-1676
Dutch 34 Gun
5th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Raadhuis van Haarlem (48) 1658-1667
Dutch 48 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Groningen (40) 1641-1666
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Vergulde Zon (40) 1640-1666
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Edam (34) 1641-1665
Dutch 34 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Jacob SwartDutch
Naval Sailor
Captured
Schager Roos (40) 1658-1665
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
Cornelis Joosten SmientDutch
Naval Sailor
Asperen (32) 1656-1689
Dutch 32 Gun
5th Rate
Jacob Claeszoon SwartDutch
Naval Sailor
Vollenhoven (30) 1665-1665
Dutch 30 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Hendrick HaeckroyDutch
Naval Sailor
Fortuin 1665-1665
Dutch Unrated Fireship
 
Prinses Royaal (40) 1641-1665
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
Adriaan Teding van BerkhoutDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1660
Batavia (44) 1665-1666
Dutch 44 Gun
Hired East Indiaman
Jan Pieterszoon OnclaerDutch
Naval Sailor
 
The 6th Zeeland Squadron,
Cornelis EvertsenDutch
Naval Sailor
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Vlissingen (46) 1653-1674
Dutch 46 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 Squadron Flagship
Veere (40) 1653-1673
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Adriaen van Trappen BanckertDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1684
Drie Helden Davids (50) 1654-1686
Dutch 50 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Pieter BonsartDutch
Naval Sailor
Dordrecht (50) 1653-1673
Dutch 50 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Adriaan de HaazeDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Zeeridder (34) 1653-1667
Dutch 34 Gun
6th Rate Ship
Jan Willem MarinissenDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Zwanenburg (30) 1661-1665
Dutch 30 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
Cornelis KuiperDutch
Naval Sailor
Burnt
Visschers Herder (26) 1660-1672
Dutch 26 Gun
6th Rate Ship
 
West Capelle (40) 1652-1667
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Visscher (16) 1665-1665
Dutch 16 Gun
6th Rate
Simon LonckeDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1676
Utrecht (48) 1653-1665
Dutch 48 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Rotterdam (46) 1655-1665
Dutch 46 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Vrede (40) 1653-1667
Dutch 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Laurens van HeemskerckDutch
Naval Sailor
,
Huijbert HuijghDutch
Naval Sailor
Gorcum (34) 1639-1671
Dutch 34 Gun
5th Rate Ship
 
Briel (22) 1657-1665
Dutch 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Frans van NijdekDutch
Naval Sailor
Zwolle (16) 1661-1667
Dutch 16 Gun
6th Rate Yacht
Passchier de WitteDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1617-1717
Zoutelande (4) 1665-1665
Dutch 4 Gun
Unrated Ketch
Willem HendriksenDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Hazewindhond (8) 1665-1673
Dutch 8 Gun
Unrated Advice Boat
 
 
The 7th Noorderkwartier Squadron,
Volckert SchramDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1636-1736
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Wapen van Nassau (60) 1654-1686
Dutch 60 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Dirk Gerritszoon PompDutch
Naval Sailor
Squadron Flagship
Eendracht (44) 1639-1676
Dutch 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Medemblik (46) 1664-1676
Dutch 46 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Adriaan Dirckszoon HouttuijnDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1616-1716
Gelderland (60) 1654-1686
Dutch 60 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Hollandsche Tuin (50) 1654-1666
Dutch 50 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Klaas AnkerDutch
Naval Sailor
Jozua (60) 1655-1672
Dutch 60 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Westfriesland (50) 1661-1665
Dutch 50 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Jupiter (32) 1653-1686
Dutch 32 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Jonge Prins (30) 1634-1666
Dutch 30 Gun
4th Rate Ship
Jan HalfhoornDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Captured
Eenhorn (30) 1623-1665
Dutch 30 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Wapen van Hoorn (30) 1636-1673
Dutch 30 Gun
6th Rate Ship
Claes Corneliszoon HenDutch
Naval Sailor
Carolus Quintus (54) 1665-1665
Dutch 54 Gun
Merchant East Indiaman
  Captured
Nagelboom (52) 1659-1665
Dutch 52 Gun
Merchant East Indiaman
BoonDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Captured
Beurs van Amsterdam (52) 1660-1667
Dutch 52 Gun
Merchant Yacht
Cornelis MutsDutch
Naval Sailor
Service 1615-1715
Agatha (32) 1665-1666
Dutch 32 Gun
Merchant Yacht
 

Kingdom of England

 
The White Squadron,
Ship NameCommanderNotes
 
The Vanguard - White Squadron,
Christopher MyngsBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1651-1655
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Happy Return (40) 1665-1666
British 40 Gun
Hired Ship
John HubbardBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1669
John and Abigail (40) 1665-1665
British 40 Gun
Hired Ship
Joseph SandersBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1666
Katherine (36) 1665-1666
British 36 Gun
Hired Ship
Thomas ElliottBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1654-1673
Hired Merchantman
John and Katherine (32) 1664-1665
British 32 Gun
Hired Ship
John WhatelyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665
Colchester (24) 1654-1667
British 24 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Daniel HellingBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1672
Triumph (60) 1623-1688
British 60 Gun
2nd Rate Great Ship
Christopher MyngsBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1651-1655
Squadron Flagship
Monck (52) 1660-1702
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Thomas PenroseBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1667
Newcastle (44) 1653-1692
British 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Thomas PageBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1670
Lion (52) 1658-1698
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Edward SpraggBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1672
Ruby (42) 1652-1708
British 42 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
William JennensBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1648-1690
Expedition (30) 1637-1667
British 30 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Tobias SacklerBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1660-1666
Happy Return (44) 1654-1691
British 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Happy Return"
James LambertBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1665
,
John HubbardBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1669
,
Thomas HarwoodBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1672
 
The Main Body - White Squadron,
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Exchange (36) 1665-1665
British 36 Gun
Hired Ship
Samuel WentworthBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1673
Reserve (44) 1650-1701
British 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
John TyrwhittBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1660-1688
Rainbow (64) 1617-1680
British 64 Gun
2nd Rate Great Ship
Roger StricklandBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1688
,
Willoughby HannamBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1672
Revenge (52) 1654-1678
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Revenge"
Robert HolmesBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1660-1672
Royal James (70) 1658-1667
British 70 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Royal James"
John KempthorneBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1657-1679
Squadron Flagship
Garland (22) 1654-1698
British 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
1660 Renamed "Garland"
Charles TalbotBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1687
Assurance (32) 1646-1698
British 32 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
John JefferiesBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1666
Mary Rose (40) 1653-1691
British 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
1660 Renamed "Mary Rose"
William ReevesBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1665
Henrietta (52) 1654-1689
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Henrietta"
Walter WoodBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1650-1666
Bendish (42) 1664-1665
British 42 Gun
Hired Ship
Robert TaylorBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1636-1665
Portland (40) 1652-1692
British 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
John AylettBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1658-1668
 
The Rearguard - White Squadron,
Robert SansomBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1651-1665
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Cheriton (22) 1656-1676
British 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
1666 Renamed "Speedwell"
John LightfootBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1667
East India Merchant (44) 1664-1668
British 44 Gun
Hired Ship
John WilgressBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1656-1671
Saint Andrew (52) 1622-1666
British 52 Gun
2nd Rate Great Ship
1650 Renamed "Andrew"
1660 Renamed "Saint Andrew"
Valentine PyendBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1662-1667
Advice (42) 1650-1698
British 42 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Bear (42) 1652-1666
British 42 Gun
4th Rate Ship
John WaterworthBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1662-1672
Constant Katherine (40) 1665-1667
British 40 Gun
Hired Ship
Francis SandersBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1667
Kent (40) 1652-1672
British 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
1660 Renamed "Kent"
Thomas EwensBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1666
Anne (52) 1653-1673
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1665 Renamed "Anne"
Arnold BrowneBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1665
Resolution (50) 1654-1666
British 50 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Resolution"
Sir William KempthorneBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1666
,
Robert SansomBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1651-1665
CO Killed
Milford (22) 1654-1673
British 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
1660 Renamed "Milford"
Thomas SealeBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1646-1665
 
Ships not in the Line - White Squadron
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Martin (14) 1652-1667
British 14 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Richard WhiteBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1672
Drake (14) 1652-1691
British 14 Gun
6th Rate Ship
Richard PooleBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1666
Dolphin (4) 1666-1667
British 4 Gun
Unrated Fireship
 
Fame (30) 1653-1665
British 30 Gun
5th Rate Ship
John GethingsBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1666
Expended
Hind (8) 1656-1667
British 8 Gun
Unrated Ketch
 
Bramble (14) 1657-1667
British 14 Gun
6th Rate Ship
William YoungerBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1647-1667
,
Napthali BallBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1673
Fireship (Expended 1665/06/04)
 
The Red Squadron
Ship NameCommanderNotes
 
The Vanguard - Red Squadron,
Sir John LawsonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1642-1665
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Bristol (50) 1653-1693
British 50 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
John HartBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1672
Gloucester (52) 1654-1682
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Robert ClarkeBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1644-1669
Royal Exchange (46) 1664-1667
British 46 Gun
Hired Ship
Giles ShelleyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1665
Diamond (42) 1652-1693
British 42 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
John KingBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1651-1668
Royal Oak (76) 1664-1667
British 76 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
Sir John LawsonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1642-1665
Squadron Flagship
Norwich (22) 1655-1682
British 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
John WetwangBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1681
Guinea (34) 1649-1667
British 34 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
James AblesonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1665
Saint George (52) 1622-1697
British 52 Gun
2nd Rate Great Ship
1650 Renamed "George"
1660 Renamed "Saint George"
Joseph JordanBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1642-1672
Coast Frigate (34) 1664-1665
British 34 Gun
Hired Ship
Thomas LawsonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665
Dover 1654-1695
British 4th Rate Ship of the Line
Geoffrey PearceBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1658-1672
King Fernando (36) 1665-1665
British 36 Gun
Hired Ship
Francis JohnsonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665
 
The Main Body - Red Squadron
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Plymouth (52) 1653-1703
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Thomas AllinBritish
Naval Sailor
Privateer
Service 1648-1678
Fountain (34) 1664-1672
British 34 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Sir Jean Baptiste Du TielBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1675
Blackamore (38) 1665-1665
British 38 Gun
Hired Ship
Richard NealeBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1665
Mary (54) 1650-1687
British 54 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Mary"
Jeremy SmithBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1668
Royal Charles (80) 1655-1667
British 80 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Royal Charles"
John HarmanBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1646-1673
Fleet Flagship
Mermaid (24) 1651-1689
British 24 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Jasper GrantBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1674
Antelope (40) 1653-1693
British 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Antelope"
John ChicheleyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1662-1674
Old James (48) 1634-1682
British 48 Gun
2nd Rate Great Ship
1660 Renamed "Old James"
James LeyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1665
CO Killed
Loyal George (42) 1665-1666
British 42 Gun
Hired Ship
John EarleBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1669
Yarmouth (50) 1653-1680
British 50 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Thomas AyliffeBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1671
Vanguard (56) 1631-1667
British 56 Gun
2nd Rate Great Ship
Jonas PooleBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1665
Convertine (44) 1650-1666
British 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
John PearceBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1657-1670
 
The Rearguard - Red Squadron,
Sir William BerkeleyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1666
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Eagle (44) 1665-1665
British 44 Gun
Hired Ship
William GodfreyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1673
,
Thomas HendraBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1666
Amity (36) 1650-1667
British 36 Gun
4th Rate Ship
John ParkerBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1666
Satisfaction (46) 1665-1665
British 46 Gun
Hired Ship
William GodfreyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1673
,
Richard MayBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1683
Fairfax (52) 1653-1674
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Robert SalmonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1665
Swiftsure (64) 1653-1666
British 64 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Sir William BerkeleyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1666
Portsmouth (34) 1649-1689
British 34 Gun
4th Rate Frigate
Robert MohunBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1660-1667
George (40) 1665-1666
British 40 Gun
Hired Ship
Robert HatubbBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1665
Leopard (44) 1659-1699
British 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Richard BeachBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1688
Sapphire (38) 1651-1670
British 38 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Henry HideBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1662-1665
Loyal Merchant (50) 1665-1666
British 50 Gun
Hired Ship
Robert SandersBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1650-1667
 
Ships not in the Line - Red Squadron
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Roe (8) 1656-1669
British 8 Gun
Unrated Ketch
James LockBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1666
Eaglet (8) 1655-1674
British 8 Gun
Unrated Ketch
Stephen SartaineBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1670
 
The Blue Squadron,
Lord Edward Montagu (1st Earl of Sandwich)British
Naval Sailor
Service 1656-1672
Ship NameCommanderNotes
 
The Vanguard - Blue Squadron,
Thomas TeddemanBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1666
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Society (36) 1665-1667
British 36 Gun
Hired Ship
Ralph LassellsBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1677
Forrester (22) 1657-1672
British 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Edward CotterellBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1673
Royal Katherine (84) 1664-1699
British 84 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
Thomas TeddemanBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1666
Squadron Flagship
Essex (56) 1653-1666
British 56 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Richard UtberBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1669
Princess (44) 1660-1680
British 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship
George SwanleyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1642-1665
Golden Phoenix (36) 1665-1665
British 36 Gun
Hired East Indiaman
Samuel DickinsonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665
Adventure (32) 1646-1691
British 32 Gun
4th Rate Ship
Benjamin YoungBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1670
Dreadnought (52) 1654-1690
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Dreadnought"
Henry TerneBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1660-1666
Prudent Mary (36) 1652-1672
British 36 Gun
Hired Ship
Thomas HawardBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1665
 
The Main Body - Blue Squadron,
Lord Edward Montagu (1st Earl of Sandwich)British
Naval Sailor
Service 1656-1672
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Dragon (38) 1647-1690
British 38 Gun
4th Rate Ship
Valentine PyendBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1662-1667
,
John LloydBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1672
Centurion (50) 1650-1689
British 50 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Robert MoultonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1667
,
Edmund SeamanBritish
Naval Sailor
Merchant Sailor
Service 1638-1650
Lyme (52) 1654-1673
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1666 Renamed "Montagu"
Henry FennBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1666
Prince Royal (92) 1663-1666
British 92 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
Roger CuttanceBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1666
Squadron Flagship
Pembroke (22) 1655-1667
British 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Thomas DarcyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1662-1673
,
Richard GoodladBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1668
Dunkirk (50) 1651-1703
British 50 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Dunkirk"
John HaywardBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1651-1672
Bredah (40) 1655-1666
British 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Bredah"
Sir Robert KirbyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1665
John and Thomas (44) 1665-1667
British 44 Gun
Hired Ship
Henry DawesBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1667
Swallow (40) 1653-1692
British 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
1660 Renamed "Swallow"
Richard HodgesBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1654-1666
Madras (42) 1665-1665
British 42 Gun
Hired Ship
John NorbrookeBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665
 
The Rearguard - Blue Squadron,
Sir George AyscueBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1646-1672
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Jersey (40) 1654-1691
British 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
Hugh HideBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1666
Hamburg Merchant (36) 1664-1667
British 36 Gun
Hired Ship
James CadmanBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1665
Hampshire (38) 1653-1686
British 38 Gun
4th Rate Ship
George BattsBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1644-1666
Castle Frigate (36) 1665-1668
British 36 Gun
Hired Ship
Philip EvattBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1665-1666
Assistance (40) 1650-1687
British 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Unicorn (46) 1634-1687
British 46 Gun
2nd Rate Great Ship
Henry TeddemanBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1666
Providence (30) 1637-1668
British 30 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Richard JamesBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1660-1674
York (52) 1653-1703
British 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "York"
John SwanleyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1667
Henry (64) 1656-1682
British 64 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
1660 Renamed "Henry"
Sir George AyscueBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1646-1672
,
Sir George AyscueBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1646-1672
 
Ships not in the Line - Blue Squadron
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Bryar (12) 1651-1667
British 12 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Richard CottonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1697
Nonsuch (8) 1654-1667
British 8 Gun
Unrated Ketch
Robert CrosmanBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1667
 
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Charity (46) 1653-1665
British 46 Gun
4th Rate Ship
1656 Renamed "Charity"
Robert WilkinsonBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1649-1665
Captured
Paul (6) 1652-1667
British 6 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Peter FooteBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1653-1666
Coventry (28) 1658-1666
British 28 Gun
5th Rate Ship
William HillBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1666
Success (24) 1658-1680
British 24 Gun
5th Rate Ship
1660 Renamed "Success"
Edward GroveBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1657-1665
Guernsey (22) 1654-1693
British 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
1660 Renamed "Guernsey"
John UtberBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1663-1665
Hector (22) 1657-1665
British 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
John CuttleBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1659-1665
Oxford (22) 1656-1667
British 22 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Philemon BaconBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1661-1665
Dolphin (20) 1655-1665
British 20 Gun
5th Rate Ship
1660 Renamed "Dolphin"
William GregoryBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1651-1665
Lizard (16) 1653-1666
British 16 Gun
5th Rate Ship
John AndrewsBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1666
Mary Prize (14) 1654-1666
British 14 Gun
6th Rate Ship
Abraham BlackleachBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1666
Paradox (14) 1649-1668
British 14 Gun
5th Rate Ship
Leonard GuyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1664-1668
 

Notes on Action


Description of the actionTRN2

Prince Rupert led the van, the Duke the centre, and Sandwich the rear. At 3.30 A.M. the action began, and it would appear that the two fleets, each in line ahead, passed one another on opposite tacks in the set manner of the time, though some accounts declare that they passed through one another. Having passed, each turned sixteen points and renewed the encounter. The Dutch seem to have altered course in succession, their van remaining their van, their centre their centre, and their rear their rear; but the English altered course simultaneously, so that, at the second passage, their rear became their van. The Dutch in vain strove to gain the weather-gauge; and it was probably owing to these efforts that at about 1 P.M., in the course of the second or a subsequent passage, Sandwich's squadron found itself mixed up with the Dutch centre, and, either by accident or by design, broke through it, so cutting the enemy's fleet into two parts. It is likely that it was by accident, for the English accounts admit that by that time, owing to the smoke, there was great confusion, and that friendly vessels narrowly escaped firing into one another. Indeed, there is no doubt that, after a certain time had elapsed, order on both sides almost ceased to exist, and the action degenerated into a gigantic melee.

In the course of the struggle, Obdam, in the Eendracht, 76, [This was her nominal force, though English writers call her an 80 and even an 84. Her real force was only three 36-pounders, twenty-two 24-pounders, fourteen 18-pounders, twelve 12-pounders, and twenty-two 6-pounders: total, seventy-three guns. List in Rijks Archief.] found himself close to the Duke of York in the Royal Charles, 80; and the two commanders-in-chief promptly and hotly engaged one another. The Eendracht attempted to board the Royal Charles, but without success. She nevertheless plied her broadside so well and continuously that the Duke was in the greatest danger of being sunk or of having to surrender. Charles Berkeley, first Earl of Falmouth, Mr. Boyle, second son of the Earl of Burlington, and Lord Muskerry, with others, were killed at the Duke's side by a single chain-shot, and his Royal Highness was covered with their blood, and even, according to one account, slightly wounded in the hand by a splinter from Mr. Boyle's skull. But, at the height of the fight, the Eendracht suddenly blew up, only five souls out of four hundred and nine who had gone into action in her escaping with their lives. It is probable that the accident was occasioned by the ignition of some loose cartridges and the extension of the flames to the powder-room, but popular tradition in Holland ascribes the catastrophe to another cause, and declares that a negro servant of Obdam fired the magazine from motives of revenge.

The explosion, and the loss of their commander-in-chief, increased the confusion of the Dutch, many of whom began to give way and to put before the wind. Yet some of the squadrons, and numerous individual ships, still gallantly held their ground. Jan Evertsen assumed the chief command, but the news of his having done so did not reach Cornelis Tromp, who, knowing of the death of Obdam, and presently learning also that Cortenaer a had succumbed to a wound in the thigh, and that Stellingwerf had been killed by a ball through the body, imagined himself to be the senior surviving officer, and took command of so much of the fleet as remained near him. As late as two days afterwards Tromp wrote to the States-General that he did not know what had become of Evertsen. There can surely be no better proof of the disorganisation of the Dutch.

Yet, with certain disgraceful exceptions, Nagelboom and Hilversum were shamefully surrendered. The Carolus Quintus was betrayed by her mutinous crew. In consequence of misbehaviour, three captains were subsequently sentenced to be shot; three were publicly degraded; two more were dismissed the service; and the master of Cortenaer's ship was made to stand on a scaffold with a halter round his neck, and was afterwards banished. Captain Laurens Heemskerk, of the Vrede, who was condemned in contumacy, later indicated the sentence of his judges by assisting Sir Robert Holmes in August, 1666, and by serving against his country on board the French flagship at Solebay in 1672.] they fought magnificently. Captain Bastiaen Gen ten, in the East India Company's ship Oranje, 76, pressed the Montagu, 52, very hard, and, according to Dutch reports, even had possession of her for a time, until she was retaken by the Royal James, which lost her captain, Earl of Marlborough, and Charles Weston, third Earl of Portland, a volunteer on board, during the fight. The gallant Oranje subsequently caught fire, and her brave commander, who was saved from her ere she blew up, ultimately died of his wounds. Captain Jan den Haen, in the Stad en Lande, 56, actually took the Charity, 46, and eventually carried her into port as a prize. It is but fair to say, however, that the Charity had first been sadly mauled in succession by the Liefde, 70, Elf Steden, 54, and Cruijningen, 58, and that, before she was boarded, about ninety of her people escaped from her and later reached the shore.

But the day was lost; and such minor incidents as the blowing up of the poop of the Saint George, or the fatal wounding of Vice-Admiral Sir John Lawson, who had been detached after some Dutch ships which were making off, failed to revive the spirits of the enemy, even for a moment. By 7 o'clock, P.M., the Dutch were in full flight. Jan Evertsen, and the vessels with him, made for the mouth of the Maas. Tromp and his ships, in somewhat better order, made for the Texel. It was when each man, conscious of defeat, was thinking mainly of himself, that two serious disasters occurred. On one part of the scene of action, the Maarseveen, 78, Ter Goes, 30, and Swanenburg, all belonging to different squadrons. ran on board one another, and were set on fire, and destroyed. On another part, four ships, the Prins Maurits, 53, Coeverden, 56. Utrecht, 48, and one more, 'similarly fouled one another, and being caught, while still interlocked and unmanageable, by an English fireship, were all burnt.

According to Sir William Coventry's report to the Lord High Admiral, the prizes taken and already brought into British ports, were as follows:

ShipGunsMen
Carolus Quintus54230
Hilversum60290
Delft32130
Yacht, De Ruijter1880
Jonge Prins36160
Mars50200
Nagelboom54225
Wappen van Zeeland44180
Bul36150

 

But to these should be added the Huis te Swieten, 70 guns, 300 men, the Geldersche Ruiter, 48 guns, 180 men, the Westfriesland, 50 guns, 260 men, and probably one more, making fourteen in all, besides four which were abandoned after capture, in consequence of their unseaworthy condition. About fourteen in addition seem to have been destroyed. If this estimate be correct, the total loss of the Dutch was about thirty-two sail. Their loss in officers and men was about 4000 killed and 2000 taken.

The English loss was, in comparison, very slight. That the Charity was taken is admitted by all. The Dutch claim to have also taken the John and Mary, but nothing else. Of killed, there were only about 250, of wounded, about 340; and the Dutch cannot have carried off more than about a couple of hundred prisoners at most. But the victory cost the lives of two English flag-officers and three captains, Vice-Admiral Sir John Lawson, Rear-Admiral Robert Sansom, Captain James Ley, Earl of Marlborough, of the Royal James, Captain Robert Kirby, of the Bredah, and Captain James Abelson, of the Guinea.

But for the pertinacity of Tromp, who covered the retreat, the Dutch would have suffered still more severely. Two other causes contributed to save them from utter destruction. One was that, after the action, it blew hard towards the dangerous Dutch coasts, and that the victors, according to Colliber, had expended all their fireships. The other was the failure of the English to press the pursuit.




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