Recent updates


Recent Comments

Battle of Bornholm

25th May 1676
Part of : Scanian War (1675 - 1679)
Previous action : Action of 23rd April 1676 23.4.1676
Next action : Battle of Öland 1.6.1676

 

Sweden

 
Swedish Line
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Kronan (126) 1668-1676
Swedish 126 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
 Fleet Flagship
Svärdet (94) 1662-1676
Swedish 94 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
 Squadron Flagship
Nyckeln (86) 1665-1679
Swedish 86 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
 Squadron Flagship
Äpplet (84) 1661-1676
Swedish 84 Gun
1st Rate Ship of the Line
 
Viktoria (84) 1658-1688
Swedish 84 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Solen (80) 1667-1694
Swedish 80 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
Johan BogemanSwedish
Naval Sailor
Service 1646-1700
Mars (74) 1667-1677
Swedish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Saturnus (74) 1662-1707
Swedish 74 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
1687 Renamed "Bohus"
1663 Renamed "Saturnus"
 
Sankt Hieronymus (72) 1675-1677
Swedish 72 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Wrangel (70) 1664-1689
Swedish 70 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Jupiter (68) 1666-1689
Swedish 68 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Venus (68) 1667-1685
Swedish 68 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Draken (66) 1656-1677
Swedish 66 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Hercules (64) 1689-1710
Swedish 64 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Wismar (58) 1646-1692
Swedish 58 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
Anders AppelbomSwedish
Naval Sailor
Service 1652-1721
Carolus X (56) 1651-1692
Swedish 56 Gun
3rd Rate Ship
 
Svenska Lejonet (52) 1662-1677
Swedish 52 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Spes (46) 1666-1697
Swedish 46 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Maria (46) 1648-1677
Swedish 46 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Riga (44) 1675-1683
Swedish 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Neptunus (44) 1673-1676
Swedish 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Solen (40) 1675-1680
Swedish 40 Gun
Hired Armed Ship
 
Flygande Vargen (36) 1675-1677
Swedish 36 Gun
Hired Armed Ship
 
Abraham (30) 1675-1680
Swedish 30 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
 
 
Swedish Frigates
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Danska Fenix (44) 1659-1679
Swedish 44 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Trumslagaren (34) 1674-1679
Swedish 34 Gun
Hired Armed Ship
 
Fredrika Amalia (32) 1676-1694
Swedish 32 Gun
5th Rate Ship
 
Sundsvall (32) 1674-1676
Swedish 32 Gun
5th Rate Ship
 
Salvator (30) 1675-1680
Swedish 30 Gun
Hired Armed Ship
 
Nordstjärnan (28) 1670-1684
Swedish 28 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
 
Järnvågen (28) 1675-1676
Swedish 28 Gun
Hired Armed Ship
 
Hjorten (36) 1645-1680
Swedish 36 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
Uttern (24) 1672-1681
Swedish 24 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
 
 
Not in the line
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Leopard (22) 1676-1676
Swedish 22 Gun
Unrated Fireship
  Captured
Konung David (10) 1675-1676
Swedish 10 Gun
Hired Storeship
  Captured
 

Allied (Denmark & Dutch Republic)

 
Danish Squadron
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Churprinsen (88) 1664-1710
Danish 88 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
 Fleet Flagship
Tre Løver (52) 1656-1686
Danish 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 Squadron Flagship
Enigheden (72) 1650-1679
Danish 72 Gun
2nd Rate Ship of the Line
1667 Renamed "Prinsesse Charlotte"
1675 Renamed "Enigheden"
 
Christianus IV (56) 1672-1719
Danish 56 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Frederik III (52) 1672-1714
Danish 52 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Gyldenløve (52) 1669-1709
Danish 52 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Naeldebladet (50) 1671-1691
Danish 50 Gun
3rd Rate Ship
 
Christiania (50) 1674-1686
Danish 50 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Lindormen (44) 1654-1708
Danish 44 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Delmenhorst (42) 1665-1712
Danish 42 Gun
4th Rate Ship
1707 Renamed "Gamle Delmenhorst"
 
Svenska Falk (40) 1675-1695
Danish 40 Gun
4th Rate Ship
 
København (34) 1663-1676
Danish 34 Gun
5th Rate Ship
 
 
Dutch Squadron
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Delft (62) 1666-1689
Dutch 62 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 Squadron Flagship
Gideon (60) 1664-1689
Dutch 60 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
Squadron Flagship
Akerboom (60) 1664-1689
Dutch 60 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 Squadron Flagship
Oostergo (68) 1653-1676
Dutch 68 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 Squadron Flagship
Noord Holland (46) 1670-1696
Dutch 46 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 Squadron Flagship
Waasdorp (68) 1663-1691
Dutch 68 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Justina van Nassau (60) 1667-1686
Dutch 60 Gun
3rd Rate Ship of the Line
 
Caleb (50) 1654-1676
Dutch 50 Gun
4th Rate Ship of the Line
 
Utrecht (36) 1660-1687
Dutch 36 Gun
4th Rate Frigate
 
 
Danish Frigates
Ship NameCommanderNotes
Havmanden (36) 1674-1683
Danish 36 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
 
Charitas (30) 1676-1690
Danish 30 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
 
Lossen (26) 1673-1679
Danish 26 Gun
6th Rate Ship
 
Hummeren (24) 1666-1700
Danish 24 Gun
5th Rate Frigate
 
Havfruen (20) 1663-1691
Danish 20 Gun
3rd Rate Ship
 
Spragelede Falk (16) 1673-1679
Danish 16 Gun
6th Rate Ship
 
 
Not in the line
Ship NameCommanderNotes
 

Notes on Action


Description of the actionNWB

The Allies were about ten miles north of Jasmund, the north-east corner of Rugen, when the Swedish fleet was sighted at 6 a.m. on May 25th coming down before a light north-easterly breeze. In the face of such superiority it was obviously Juel's duty to avoid action if possible, more especially since he knew that reinforcements would shortly be leaving Copenhagen. Nevertheless, wanting to avoid any appearance of flight, and also probably with the hope of getting in a blow on his own account before Tromp's arrival, he formed line, not on the starboard, but on the port tack, thus heading away from Copenhagen.

He kept close-hauled on the port tack, but meanwhile the wind gradually veered, so that when Creutz got level and bore away to attack, the allied fleet was four miles east of Jasmund, heading S.S.E. The Swedes were in some disorder, partly through the fault of Creutz, who had never commanded a fleet before, and partly through lack of skill in the handling of individual ships. Juel took the opportunity given him. He tacked his fleet in succession, stood N.N.E. with a freshening breeze, and managed at about 9 p.m. to cut off the last five Swedish ships, apparently small-craft, but it was too dark to do much. A little later Creutz tacked also, and the action ended. During the night both fleets kept on the starboard tack, and next morning the action was renewed. Details of the fighting are very uncertain. Each of the three nations concerned has an entirely different account of it; but it is possible by the selection of portions of each story to piece together a fairly plausible narrative. In the following account mention is made of the sources from which the various details are drawn. The wind was S.S.E. (Tornquist, Garde). The Swedes were in a general way to windward, but very much scattered (Tornquist). Juel began to beat to windward to cut off the most leewardly of the Swedes, who did the same in order to re-unite (Bruun, Juel's report). The Dutch squadron formed the van of the Allies and sailed in general better than the Swedes, who were in turn better than the Danes (de Jpnge). As a result, when Almonde got up to the Swedish line at 7 a.m. he was supported by only three of the Danish ships in addition to his own squadron (de Jonge). On the other hand, only a part of Creutz's fleet was in position to receive him (Tornquist). The fleets passed twice on opposite tacks. The first time Almonde was only just within range, but the second time he ran along the whole Swedish line as close as possible. His ships suffered severely. According to a Swedish eye-witness his flagship, the Delft 62, had a hole made in her " big enough to drive a horse and cart through". At any rate, she was evidently very much damaged, since Almonde had to shift his flag to the Gideon 60, and in addition to the flagship the Waesdorp 68 was driven out of action and the Ostergo 60 and Northolland 44 considerably knocked about. Meanwhile, some of the Danes had got to windward of the Swedish lee ships and cut them off from the main body. Juel, however, thought he had done enough for appearance's sake, and seeing that Creutz showed signs of coming down to their relief he bore up at 2 p.m. and retired, covering his retreat by sending in a fireship. This, of course, compelled Almonde to withdraw also, and the allied fleet proceeded in good order with the Dutch astern (de Jonge) to Falsterbo, East of Kjoge Bay, where they anchored. Creutz started to pursue, but seeing the Merkurius 64, commanded by his son Major Creutz, in danger from the Danish fireship, he backed his foretopsail with the idea of helping her. This threw the fleet into even worse confusion than before, and it was not until Uggla came on board the flagship (Tornquist) that any sort of order was restored. The pursuit was then begun again, but it was too late, and the Swedes were too scattered to do any good. As night fell Creutz took his fleet to Trelleborg and anchored about ten miles east of the Allies.

The Swedes lost two ships. The Konung David 10 (store-ship) was cut off from the fleet on the 25th and captured and burnt by a Dutch ship next day. The Leopard fireship [She was a merchantman able to carry 20-30 guns, but was now used as a fireship. German accounts give her 22 guns but probably mean " ports." ] was taken by the Brandenburg squadron of three frigates, two Galiots, and six "sloops " (very small craft), which was on its way from Copenhagen under Raule to join the Allies. The Allies had a loss of fifty men killed and fifteen wounded. + That of the Swedes is not known. It can hardly be said that either side had won a victory, though the Swedes had, of course, every reason to feel dissatisfied. With a superiority in force of more than three to two, with the advantage of the single nationality, and with the weather position, they had failed to capture a single ship or to prevent Juel from reaching a position where he could get reinforcements unhindered. Probably much of their want of success was due to Creutz's inexperience, but there is no doubt that he was not properly supported by his subordinates. On the other hand, though the result of the fight wa>s> in a way as creditable to the Allies as it was discreditable to the Swedes, the natural jealousy and distrust of the two different nationalities showed themselves very clearly. Almonde reported that he had not been properly backed up by the Danes on the 26th, and accused Rodstehn in particular of lack of support, while the Danes stated that the Dutch had deliberately kept out of action for some time during the first day's fighting. Be this as it may, there can be little doubt that, in spite of the fact that the Swedes held thanksgiving services for their "victory," the advantage of the two days, such as it was, rested with the Allies.




Previous comments on this pageno comments to display
Make a comment about this page





Recent comments to other pages

Date postedByPage
Saturday 18th of September 2021 11:58Linda C. Jones
Friday 17th of September 2021 16:14Candy Herwin
Friday 17th of September 2021 01:18John DickieLouisbourg Expedition
Thursday 16th of September 2021 15:05Michelle Lallement
Raymond-Antoine HaranFrench
Designer
Ship Builder
Wednesday 15th of September 2021 07:26John Manley
Isaac George ManleyBritish
Naval Sailor
Service 1768-1814