James Cornewall


NationalityBritish 
RolesNaval Sailor 
Date of Birth1698ODNB
Baptism17.11.1698 - Moccas, Hertfordshire ODNB
First Known Service9.6.1718ODNB
FatherCol. Henry Cornewall (d. 1717)ODNB
MotherSusanna WilliamsODNB
UncleCharles Cornewall (1669-1718)ODNB
Half-brotherHenry, MP (1685-1756)HPO
BrotherVelters, MP (?1697-1768)HPO
CousinFrederick Cornewall (1706-1786)ODNB
Last Known Service11.2.1743/44ODNB
Date of Death11.2.1743/44 - Battle of ToulonCSORN
Cause of DeathEnemy actionODNB

Event History


Date fromDate toEventSource
9.6.1718 Lieutenant ADM 6/12/144ADM 6/12
9.6.171823.12.1719Argyle (54), Second Lieutenant ADM 6/12/144
Commission confirmed 17.11.1718
ADM 6/12
11.8.1718 Battle of Cape Passaro 
24.12.17191721Revenge (70), Second Lieutenant ADM 6/12/186ADM 6/12
3.1720/2112.1721Chatham (50), VolunteerODNB
12.17213.4.1724Torbay (80), VolunteerODNB
3.4.1724 Captain ADM 6/13/67CSORN
3.4.17248.1728Sheerness (20), Captain and Commanding Officer ADM 6/13/67BWAS-1603
14.4.173230.4.1734Elected a Member of Parliament for WeobleyHPO
12.10.17326.11.1732Success (20), Captain and Commanding Officer ADM 6/14/124ADM 6/14
27.11.173219.3.1733/34Greyhound (20), Captain and Commanding OfficerBWAS-1714
20.3.1733/3419.7.1736Deptford (60), Captain and Commanding Officer ADM 6/15/177BWAS-1714
12.11.173624.6.1739Greenwich (50), Captain and Commanding Officer ADM 6/15/43BWAS-1714
3.3.1736/3715.5.1741Elected a Member of Parliament for WeobleyHPO
16.7.173914.2.1739/40Saint Albans (50), Captain and Commanding Officer ADM 6/15/204BWAS-1714
5.3.1740/4112.1.1743/44Bedford (70), Captain and Commanding Officer ADM 6/15/392BWAS-1714
12.1.1743/4411.2.1743/44Marlborough (90), Captain and Commanding OfficerBWAS-1714
11.2.1743/4412.2.1743/44Battle of Toulon 

Notes on Officer


Biographyref:1059

CORNEWALL, JAMES (1699–1744), captain in the navy, third son of Henry Cornewall of Bradwardine, near Hereford, nephew of Vice-admiral Charles Cornewall [q. v.], was, on 3 April 1724, promoted to be captain of the Sheerness frigate, in which for the next four years he was employed on the coast of North America, and principally at Boston, in protecting the legitimate trade, and in suppressing piracy. His correspondence at this time throws a curious light on the state of colonial navigation, and recalls to mind the opening chapters of Fenimore Cooper's ‘Water Witch’ and ‘Red Rover.’ He returned to England in August 1728, and in December 1732 was appointed to the Greyhound, a small frigate, in which, during the following summer, he was employed on the coast of Morocco, where, in the course of 1733, he established friendly relations with the Sallee corsairs and the bashaw of Tetuan. He returned to England and paid off in the following March, and in June commissioned the Deptford of 50 guns, which for the next two years he commanded in the Channel and on the coast of Portugal under Sir John Norris. Early in 1737 he commissioned the Greenwich for service on the coast of Africa, where his duties would seem to have been regulating the trade with the negroes, as well for other commodities as for slaves. Some rumour afterwards reached the admiralty that he had himself been guilty of carrying slaves to Barbadoes, but it seems to have been quite unsupported by evidence, and led to nothing but a caution addressed to Anson, who succeeded him (Admiralty Minute, 7 April 1738). In 1739 Cornewall was appointed to the St. Albans of 50 guns, in which during the months of September and October, in company with the Weymouth, he cruised off the Azores in quest of homeward-bound Spanish ships. It was afterwards proposed to send him, in command of a small squadron, into the China seas and Western Pacific, to co-operate with a similar squadron sent round Cape Horn into the Eastern Pacific [see Anson, George, Lord]; but the project fell through, on account of the strain of the West Indian expedition. In 1741 Cornewall was appointed to the Bedford, in which, in the following year, he accompanied Vice-admiral Mathews to the Mediterranean. There, in 1743, he was transferred to the Marlborough of 90 guns, which in the action off Toulon was next astern of the Namur, bearing Mathews's flag [see Mathews, Thomas], and in support of the Namur was closely engaged with the Real Felipe and her seconds (11 Feb. 1743–4). It was on these two ships that the brunt of the fighting fell; and when the Namur shot up into the wind, the Marlborough, left to herself, sustained heavy loss. She was completely dismasted, was reduced to a wreck, had 43 killed and 120 wounded. Among the former was Cornewall, whose legs were swept off by a chain shot. A large and ornate monument to his memory was erected at the public expense in Westminster Abbey. He was M.P. for Weobley 1732–4 and 1737–41. Cornewall's cousin, Frederick Cornewall, was first lieutenant of the Marlborough, and on the captain's death succeeded to the command, until his right arm was shot off. He was promoted to post rank on the same day, commanded the Revenge in the action off Minorca in 1756, and died in 1786.



Sources


IDDescriptionAuthorType
ODNBOxford Dictionary of National BiographyOxford University PressWeb Site
HPOHistory of Parliament online Web Site
CSORNCommissioned Sea Officers of the Royal NavyDavid Bonner SmithWeb Site
ADM 6/12ADM 6/12 Commission and Warrent Book 1714 14 Oct.-1721 Jan. Archive
BWAS-1603British Warships in the Age of Sail 1603 - 1714Rif WinfieldBook
ADM 6/14ADM 6/14 Commission and Warrant Book 1728 4 Oct.-1735 23 Dec. Archive
BWAS-1714British Warships in the Age of Sail 1714 - 1792Rif WinfieldBook
ref:1059Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900 Digital Book

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